2 NOTE! This copyright does *not* cover user programs that use kernel
3 services by normal system calls - this is merely considered normal use
4 of the kernel, and does *not* fall under the heading of "derived work".
5 Also note that the GPL below is copyrighted by the Free Software
6 Foundation, but the instance of code that it refers to (the Linux
7 kernel) is copyrighted by me and others who actually wrote it.
9 Also note that the only valid version of the GPL as far as the kernel
10 is concerned is _this_ particular version of the license (ie v2, not
11 v2.2 or v3.x or whatever), unless explicitly otherwise stated.
13 Linus Torvalds
17 GNU GENERAL PUBLIC LICENSE
18 Version 2, June 1991
20 Copyright (C) 1989, 1991 Free Software Foundation, Inc.
21 51 Franklin St, Fifth Floor, Boston, MA 02110-1301 USA
22 Everyone is permitted to copy and distribute verbatim copies
23 of this license document, but changing it is not allowed.
27 The licenses for most software are designed to take away your
28 freedom to share and change it. By contrast, the GNU General Public
29 License is intended to guarantee your freedom to share and change free
30 software--to make sure the software is free for all its users. This
31 General Public License applies to most of the Free Software
32 Foundation's software and to any other program whose authors commit to
33 using it. (Some other Free Software Foundation software is covered by
34 the GNU Library General Public License instead.) You can apply it to
35 your programs, too.
37 When we speak of free software, we are referring to freedom, not
38 price. Our General Public Licenses are designed to make sure that you
39 have the freedom to distribute copies of free software (and charge for
40 this service if you wish), that you receive source code or can get it
41 if you want it, that you can change the software or use pieces of it
42 in new free programs; and that you know you can do these things.
44 To protect your rights, we need to make restrictions that forbid
45 anyone to deny you these rights or to ask you to surrender the rights.
46 These restrictions translate to certain responsibilities for you if you
47 distribute copies of the software, or if you modify it.
49 For example, if you distribute copies of such a program, whether
50 gratis or for a fee, you must give the recipients all the rights that
51 you have. You must make sure that they, too, receive or can get the
52 source code. And you must show them these terms so they know their
55 We protect your rights with two steps: (1) copyright the software, and
56 (2) offer you this license which gives you legal permission to copy,
57 distribute and/or modify the software.
59 Also, for each author's protection and ours, we want to make certain
60 that everyone understands that there is no warranty for this free
61 software. If the software is modified by someone else and passed on, we
62 want its recipients to know that what they have is not the original, so
63 that any problems introduced by others will not reflect on the original
64 authors' reputations.
66 Finally, any free program is threatened constantly by software
67 patents. We wish to avoid the danger that redistributors of a free
68 program will individually obtain patent licenses, in effect making the
69 program proprietary. To prevent this, we have made it clear that any
70 patent must be licensed for everyone's free use or not licensed at all.
72 The precise terms and conditions for copying, distribution and
73 modification follow.
75 GNU GENERAL PUBLIC LICENSE
76 TERMS AND CONDITIONS FOR COPYING, DISTRIBUTION AND MODIFICATION
78 0. This License applies to any program or other work which contains
79 a notice placed by the copyright holder saying it may be distributed
80 under the terms of this General Public License. The "Program", below,
81 refers to any such program or work, and a "work based on the Program"
82 means either the Program or any derivative work under copyright law:
83 that is to say, a work containing the Program or a portion of it,
84 either verbatim or with modifications and/or translated into another
85 language. (Hereinafter, translation is included without limitation in
86 the term "modification".) Each licensee is addressed as "you".
88 Activities other than copying, distribution and modification are not
89 covered by this License; they are outside its scope. The act of
90 running the Program is not restricted, and the output from the Program
91 is covered only if its contents constitute a work based on the
92 Program (independent of having been made by running the Program).
93 Whether that is true depends on what the Program does.
95 1. You may copy and distribute verbatim copies of the Program's
96 source code as you receive it, in any medium, provided that you
97 conspicuously and appropriately publish on each copy an appropriate
98 copyright notice and disclaimer of warranty; keep intact all the
99 notices that refer to this License and to the absence of any warranty;
100 and give any other recipients of the Program a copy of this License
101 along with the Program.
103 You may charge a fee for the physical act of transferring a copy, and
104 you may at your option offer warranty protection in exchange for a fee.
106 2. You may modify your copy or copies of the Program or any portion
107 of it, thus forming a work based on the Program, and copy and
108 distribute such modifications or work under the terms of Section 1
109 above, provided that you also meet all of these conditions:
111 a) You must cause the modified files to carry prominent notices
112 stating that you changed the files and the date of any change.
114 b) You must cause any work that you distribute or publish, that in
115 whole or in part contains or is derived from the Program or any
116 part thereof, to be licensed as a whole at no charge to all third
117 parties under the terms of this License.
119 c) If the modified program normally reads commands interactively
120 when run, you must cause it, when started running for such
121 interactive use in the most ordinary way, to print or display an
122 announcement including an appropriate copyright notice and a
123 notice that there is no warranty (or else, saying that you provide
124 a warranty) and that users may redistribute the program under
125 these conditions, and telling the user how to view a copy of this
126 License. (Exception: if the Program itself is interactive but
127 does not normally print such an announcement, your work based on
128 the Program is not required to print an announcement.)
130 These requirements apply to the modified work as a whole. If
131 identifiable sections of that work are not derived from the Program,
132 and can be reasonably considered independent and separate works in
133 themselves, then this License, and its terms, do not apply to those
134 sections when you distribute them as separate works. But when you
135 distribute the same sections as part of a whole which is a work based
136 on the Program, the distribution of the whole must be on the terms of
137 this License, whose permissions for other licensees extend to the
138 entire whole, and thus to each and every part regardless of who wrote it.
140 Thus, it is not the intent of this section to claim rights or contest
141 your rights to work written entirely by you; rather, the intent is to
142 exercise the right to control the distribution of derivative or
143 collective works based on the Program.
145 In addition, mere aggregation of another work not based on the Program
146 with the Program (or with a work based on the Program) on a volume of
147 a storage or distribution medium does not bring the other work under
148 the scope of this License.
150 3. You may copy and distribute the Program (or a work based on it,
151 under Section 2) in object code or executable form under the terms of
152 Sections 1 and 2 above provided that you also do one of the following:
154 a) Accompany it with the complete corresponding machine-readable
155 source code, which must be distributed under the terms of Sections
156 1 and 2 above on a medium customarily used for software interchange; or,
158 b) Accompany it with a written offer, valid for at least three
159 years, to give any third party, for a charge no more than your
160 cost of physically performing source distribution, a complete
161 machine-readable copy of the corresponding source code, to be
162 distributed under the terms of Sections 1 and 2 above on a medium
163 customarily used for software interchange; or,
165 c) Accompany it with the information you received as to the offer
166 to distribute corresponding source code. (This alternative is
167 allowed only for noncommercial distribution and only if you
168 received the program in object code or executable form with such
169 an offer, in accord with Subsection b above.)
171 The source code for a work means the preferred form of the work for
172 making modifications to it. For an executable work, complete source
173 code means all the source code for all modules it contains, plus any
174 associated interface definition files, plus the scripts used to
175 control compilation and installation of the executable. However, as a
176 special exception, the source code distributed need not include
177 anything that is normally distributed (in either source or binary
178 form) with the major components (compiler, kernel, and so on) of the
179 operating system on which the executable runs, unless that component
180 itself accompanies the executable.
182 If distribution of executable or object code is made by offering
183 access to copy from a designated place, then offering equivalent
184 access to copy the source code from the same place counts as
185 distribution of the source code, even though third parties are not
186 compelled to copy the source along with the object code.
188 4. You may not copy, modify, sublicense, or distribute the Program
189 except as expressly provided under this License. Any attempt
190 otherwise to copy, modify, sublicense or distribute the Program is
191 void, and will automatically terminate your rights under this License.
192 However, parties who have received copies, or rights, from you under
193 this License will not have their licenses terminated so long as such
194 parties remain in full compliance.
196 5. You are not required to accept this License, since you have not
197 signed it. However, nothing else grants you permission to modify or
198 distribute the Program or its derivative works. These actions are
199 prohibited by law if you do not accept this License. Therefore, by
200 modifying or distributing the Program (or any work based on the
201 Program), you indicate your acceptance of this License to do so, and
202 all its terms and conditions for copying, distributing or modifying
203 the Program or works based on it.
205 6. Each time you redistribute the Program (or any work based on the
206 Program), the recipient automatically receives a license from the
207 original licensor to copy, distribute or modify the Program subject to
208 these terms and conditions. You may not impose any further
209 restrictions on the recipients' exercise of the rights granted herein.
210 You are not responsible for enforcing compliance by third parties to
211 this License.
213 7. If, as a consequence of a court judgment or allegation of patent
214 infringement or for any other reason (not limited to patent issues),
215 conditions are imposed on you (whether by court order, agreement or
216 otherwise) that contradict the conditions of this License, they do not
217 excuse you from the conditions of this License. If you cannot
218 distribute so as to satisfy simultaneously your obligations under this
219 License and any other pertinent obligations, then as a consequence you
220 may not distribute the Program at all. For example, if a patent
221 license would not permit royalty-free redistribution of the Program by
222 all those who receive copies directly or indirectly through you, then
223 the only way you could satisfy both it and this License would be to
224 refrain entirely from distribution of the Program.
226 If any portion of this section is held invalid or unenforceable under
227 any particular circumstance, the balance of the section is intended to
228 apply and the section as a whole is intended to apply in other
231 It is not the purpose of this section to induce you to infringe any
232 patents or other property right claims or to contest validity of any
233 such claims; this section has the sole purpose of protecting the
234 integrity of the free software distribution system, which is
235 implemented by public license practices. Many people have made
236 generous contributions to the wide range of software distributed
237 through that system in reliance on consistent application of that
238 system; it is up to the author/donor to decide if he or she is willing
239 to distribute software through any other system and a licensee cannot
240 impose that choice.
242 This section is intended to make thoroughly clear what is believed to
243 be a consequence of the rest of this License.
245 8. If the distribution and/or use of the Program is restricted in
246 certain countries either by patents or by copyrighted interfaces, the
247 original copyright holder who places the Program under this License
248 may add an explicit geographical distribution limitation excluding
249 those countries, so that distribution is permitted only in or among
250 countries not thus excluded. In such case, this License incorporates
251 the limitation as if written in the body of this License.
253 9. The Free Software Foundation may publish revised and/or new versions
254 of the General Public License from time to time. Such new versions will
255 be similar in spirit to the present version, but may differ in detail to
256 address new problems or concerns.
258 Each version is given a distinguishing version number. If the Program
259 specifies a version number of this License which applies to it and "any
260 later version", you have the option of following the terms and conditions
261 either of that version or of any later version published by the Free
262 Software Foundation. If the Program does not specify a version number of
263 this License, you may choose any version ever published by the Free Software
266 10. If you wish to incorporate parts of the Program into other free
267 programs whose distribution conditions are different, write to the author
268 to ask for permission. For software which is copyrighted by the Free
269 Software Foundation, write to the Free Software Foundation; we sometimes
270 make exceptions for this. Our decision will be guided by the two goals
271 of preserving the free status of all derivatives of our free software and
272 of promoting the sharing and reuse of software generally.
274 NO WARRANTY
276 11. BECAUSE THE PROGRAM IS LICENSED FREE OF CHARGE, THERE IS NO WARRANTY
277 FOR THE PROGRAM, TO THE EXTENT PERMITTED BY APPLICABLE LAW. EXCEPT WHEN
278 OTHERWISE STATED IN WRITING THE COPYRIGHT HOLDERS AND/OR OTHER PARTIES
279 PROVIDE THE PROGRAM "AS IS" WITHOUT WARRANTY OF ANY KIND, EITHER EXPRESSED
280 OR IMPLIED, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF
281 MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. THE ENTIRE RISK AS
282 TO THE QUALITY AND PERFORMANCE OF THE PROGRAM IS WITH YOU. SHOULD THE
283 PROGRAM PROVE DEFECTIVE, YOU ASSUME THE COST OF ALL NECESSARY SERVICING,
284 REPAIR OR CORRECTION.
286 12. IN NO EVENT UNLESS REQUIRED BY APPLICABLE LAW OR AGREED TO IN WRITING
287 WILL ANY COPYRIGHT HOLDER, OR ANY OTHER PARTY WHO MAY MODIFY AND/OR
288 REDISTRIBUTE THE PROGRAM AS PERMITTED ABOVE, BE LIABLE TO YOU FOR DAMAGES,
289 INCLUDING ANY GENERAL, SPECIAL, INCIDENTAL OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES ARISING
290 OUT OF THE USE OR INABILITY TO USE THE PROGRAM (INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED
291 TO LOSS OF DATA OR DATA BEING RENDERED INACCURATE OR LOSSES SUSTAINED BY
292 YOU OR THIRD PARTIES OR A FAILURE OF THE PROGRAM TO OPERATE WITH ANY OTHER
293 PROGRAMS), EVEN IF SUCH HOLDER OR OTHER PARTY HAS BEEN ADVISED OF THE
294 POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGES.
296 END OF TERMS AND CONDITIONS
298 How to Apply These Terms to Your New Programs
300 If you develop a new program, and you want it to be of the greatest
301 possible use to the public, the best way to achieve this is to make it
302 free software which everyone can redistribute and change under these terms.
304 To do so, attach the following notices to the program. It is safest
305 to attach them to the start of each source file to most effectively
306 convey the exclusion of warranty; and each file should have at least
307 the "copyright" line and a pointer to where the full notice is found.
309 <one line to give the program's name and a brief idea of what it does.>
310 Copyright (C) <year> <name of author>
312 This program is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify
313 it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by
314 the Free Software Foundation; either version 2 of the License, or
315 (at your option) any later version.
317 This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful,
318 but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
319 MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. See the
320 GNU General Public License for more details.
322 You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License
323 along with this program; if not, write to the Free Software
324 Foundation, Inc., 51 Franklin St, Fifth Floor, Boston, MA 02110-1301 USA
327 Also add information on how to contact you by electronic and paper mail.
329 If the program is interactive, make it output a short notice like this
330 when it starts in an interactive mode:
332 Gnomovision version 69, Copyright (C) year name of author
333 Gnomovision comes with ABSOLUTELY NO WARRANTY; for details type `show w'.
334 This is free software, and you are welcome to redistribute it
335 under certain conditions; type `show c' for details.
337 The hypothetical commands `show w' and `show c' should show the appropriate
338 parts of the General Public License. Of course, the commands you use may
339 be called something other than `show w' and `show c'; they could even be
340 mouse-clicks or menu items--whatever suits your program.
342 You should also get your employer (if you work as a programmer) or your
343 school, if any, to sign a "copyright disclaimer" for the program, if
344 necessary. Here is a sample; alter the names:
346 Yoyodyne, Inc., hereby disclaims all copyright interest in the program
347 `Gnomovision' (which makes passes at compilers) written by James Hacker.
349 <signature of Ty Coon>, 1 April 1989
350 Ty Coon, President of Vice
352 This General Public License does not permit incorporating your program into
353 proprietary programs. If your program is a subroutine library, you may
354 consider it more useful to permit linking proprietary applications with the
355 library. If this is what you want to do, use the GNU Library General
356 Public License instead of this License.
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